Oakdale Park Middle School

Grade 8 History & Geography

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Group Notes 1

The Loyalist Migration

- In 1775 thirteen colonies rebelled against Great Britan.
- The war of independence ended with the treaty of paris of 1783.

  • The thirteen colonies became the United states of America.
  • Loyalist did not agree with patriots.
  • Some loyalist were killed by patriots.
  • Alot of loyalist moved to a safer place.(British Territory)
  • Over 100,000 loyalist left the thirteen colonies.
  • Over 40,000 loyalist moved to British territory north of the thirteen colonies because they wanted to.
  • Loyalist made changes to areas of land in Nova Scotia.
  • Seven thousand loyalist had arrived in Quebec by 1785.


By: Hamza khan and his group


Formation of new colonies


-great Britain gained Quebec in 1763, and then lost the 13 colonies during the American Revolution.

-in1784 the British government created the colonies of new Brunswick and cape Breton island separate from nova Scotia.

-Joseph brunt also known as thayandanegea was a leader of the Iroquois six nation confederation.

-he led the six nation people to settle on a reserve know called the six nation reserve.

-in 1971, the British government passed a constitutional act.

-governing Quebec that was both English and French was still a problem.

-Quebec was into Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec).

Timeline conflict and change 1812-1855

-the first nation and metes people lived between the great lake and the rocky mountain. (30,000 to 40,000 people)

The great migration 1815-1850

-much of the land cleared in upper Canada and lower Canada, nova Scotia, new Brunswick, and prince Edward island.

Conflict and change 1812-1855

-the government controlled Upper Canada and Lower Canada by small groups of powerful men appointed by the governor



The War of 1812


  • In between 1814-1, the United States of America and Great Britain were at war.
  • Most of the major battles took place in Great Britain colonies of Upper Canada and Lower Canada.
  • It had several long-lasting effects on Canada.
  • In the war, there was no clear winner
  • The Fur trade was ongoing, with the participation of the First Nations and Metis.



The Great Migration

  • Between 1815 and 1850, many newcomers came to British colonies.
  • Almost all were from Great Britain, the greatest percentage was Irish.
  • Majority went to settle in Upper Canada.
  • A number settled in the Eastern townships of Lower Canada, south of the St. Lawrence River.
  • This area had been set aside for English speaking farmers.
  • Many newcomers also settled in Montreal, and in the Atlantic colonies.
  • While many people in Upper/Lower Canada viewed immigration from Great Britain as a threat to their way of life.
  • Most welcomed immigrants as a means to develop the resources of the colonies.

By: Brian, and his group.


Conflict and change

- In lower Canada the legislative +executive controlled by the merchants.

- The legislative assembly could not pass laws because the legislative and the executive would block their bills.

- In upper Canada the government were controlled would by the family compact.

- The family compact was loyal to the British and the didn't allow any change in law

- In both upper and lower Canada people who's interest were not representing began a reform movrment.

- By 1830 some people wanted to separate and form a new country.

- In 1837 the rebellion broke out in lower Canada,rebels flaw to the is.

- In upper Canada William Lyon Mackenzie.

By: Shernika and her group

By: Sohaib and his group

Act of Union Part 1

• Great Britain has chosen Lord Durham to investigate the rebellions.

• In 1841, the act of union created the united province of Canada.

• In the 1840's the British government began to rethink its costly colonial policies.

• To reduce the cost of food, the British adopted free trade.

• The British government felt that problems of colonies and demands of reformers would be best addressed by the colonies' governments.

• Nova Scotia was granted responsible government in 1847.

• The rebellion losses bill in 1849.

• The people of Canada East demanded repayment of the loses they had suffered during the rebellions.

• There was angry debate from those who opposed the payment to rebels.

• Lord Elgin, the governor, signed the bill even though, he did not agree to it.

• The department buildings in Montreal were burned to the ground during the protest.

By: Group 5 (Salma, Vivian, Bhavini & Javaughn)


Act of Union Part 2

  • The act of union in 1841 allowed Canada East and Canada West to work together in various projects.
  • In the 1850s, the government of the United Province of Canada was rendered ineffective. There were political deadlocks, French-English conflicts, etc.
  • Canada West grew angry because they wanted more seats in the legislative assemble. They wanted more seats because they had a higher population than Canada East.
  • Maritime political development was more stable. The maritime colonies focused on economic expansion through agriculture, fishing, etc.
  • The movement for reform in the maritime colonies focused more on issues like government spending. Radical Political change usually did not end in rebellion. They sought after a responsible government. (A responsible government is when the government is responsible for things such as food, instead of depending on other nations)
  • Joseph Howe became the most prominent reformer in the Atlantic Region.
  • Through the 1840s -1850s, all 4 colonies achieved responsible government.
  • Each colony was represented by the top elected group (party)
  • Each executive council can remain in power as long as they had the colony’s support.

By: Mastafa Awal, John Fallas, McDyce Leonty, Hamza Hasan